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What is the working principle of the transformer?

Source:AdminAuthor:WPOWER Addtime:2020-06-01 Click:
Shenzhen power adapter: What is the working principle of the transformer? When an AC voltage U1 is applied to the primary side of the transformer, and the current flowing through the primary winding is I1, the current will generate an alternating magnetic flux in the iron core, which will cause an electromagnetic connection between the primary winding and the secondary winding. The magnetic flux will induce an electromotive force through these two windings, and its magnitude is proportional to the number of winding turns and the maximum value of the main magnetic flux. The side with more winding turns has a higher voltage and the side with fewer winding turns has a lower voltage. When the secondary side of the transformer is open, that is, the transformer is no-load, the voltage of the secondary terminal is proportional to the number of turns of the secondary winding, and the transformer serves the purpose of transforming the voltage.
When the secondary side of the transformer is connected to the load, a secondary current will pass under the action of the electromotive force E2. The electromotive force generated by this current will also act on the same iron core to play the role of reverse demagnetization, but due to the main The magnetic flux depends on the power supply voltage, and U1 basically remains unchanged, so the primary winding current will automatically increase a component to generate the magnetomotive force F1 to offset the magnetomotive force F2 generated by the secondary winding current. Under the action of L1 and L2, the total magnetomotive force acting on the iron core (excluding the no-load current I0), F1 + F2 = 0, because F1 = I1N1, F2 = I2N2, so I1N1 + I2N2 = 0, from I1 and I2 are in phase.
So I1 / I2 = N2 / N1 = 1 / K. It can be seen from the formula that the primary and secondary current ratio and the secondary and secondary voltage ratio are inverse of each other, and the power of the primary and secondary windings of the transformer is basically unchanged (because the loss of the transformer itself is relatively smaller than its transmission power), the magnitude of the secondary winding current I2 Depends on the needs of the load, so the size of the primary winding current I1 also depends on the needs of the load, the transformer plays a role in power transmission! Transformer is an electrical equipment that uses the electromagnetic induction principle of electromagnetism to transfer electrical energy from one circuit to another. It can convert AC power of one voltage into AC power of another voltage of the same frequency.
The principle model of a single-phase transformer is composed of an iron core and two windings sleeved on the iron core. The iron core is made of a material with good magnetic permeability and low hysteresis loss. The coil connected to the power supply is the primary winding, and the coil connected to the load is the secondary winding. U1 is the voltage input to the primary winding, N1 is the number of turns in the primary winding, U2 is the voltage output from the secondary winding, and N2 is the number of turns in the secondary winding. When this is an ideal transformer, the alternating current according to the sinusoidal law is input to the primary winding. According to the basic principle of the transformer: U1 / U2 = N1 / N2 = kk = voltage ratio (turn ratio), that is, output voltage U2 = U1 * N2 / N1 We usually use three-phase alternating current. The three pairs of windings are exactly the same. Each pair of windings includes a primary winding and a secondary winding, and the turns ratio is k.
The same ends of the three primary windings are connected together, and the same ends of the three secondary windings are connected together to form a star connection. When this is an ideal transformer, when the three-phase alternating current with a sinusoidal change is input to the primary winding, the basic principles of the transformer are: U1A, U1B, U1C are the three-phase input voltage, U2A, U2B, U2C are three The output voltage of the phase. U1A / U2A = U1B / U2B = U1C / U2C = k.         

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